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ⓘ pH is a scale of acidity from 0 to 14. It tells how acidic or alkaline a substance is. More acidic solutions have lower pH. More alkaline solutions have higher ..




                                               

Ben-Oni Ardelean

Ben-Oni Ardelean is a Romanian politician, vice president of the National Liberal Party of Romania, university professor and, since 2012, a member of the Romanian Parliament.

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ⓘ PH

pH is a scale of acidity from 0 to 14. It tells how acidic or alkaline a substance is. More acidic solutions have lower pH. More alkaline solutions have higher pH. Substances that arent acidic or alkaline usually have a pH of 7. Acids have a pH that is less than 7. Alkalis have a pH that is greater than 7.

pH is a measure of the concentration of protons H + in a solution. S.P.L. Sorensen introduced this concept in the year 1909. The p stands for the German potenz, meaning power or concentration, and the H for the hydrogen ion H +.

The most common formula for calculating pH is:

pH = − log 10 ⁡ }

where a H + {\displaystyle a_{\mathrm {H^{+}} }} indicates the activity of H + ions. But, this equation in most cases provides the same value as the more common formula, so in introductory chemistry the previous equation is given as the definition of pH.

Most substances have a pH in the range of 0 to 14, although extremely acidic or alkaline substances may have pH < 0, or pH > 14.

Alkaline substances have, instead of hydrogen ions, a concentration of hydroxide ions OH -.

                                     

1. pH indicators

Certain dyes change colour depending on whether they are in an acid solution or an alkaline solution. pH indicator is a chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH acidity or basicity of the solution can be seen. The pH indicator is a chemical detector for hydronium ions H 3 O + or hydrogen ions H +. Normally, the indicator causes the colour of the solution to change depending on the pH.

Typical indicators are phenolphthalein, methyl orange, methyl red, bromothymol blue, and thymol blue. They each change colour at different points on the pH scale, and can be used together as a universal indicator.

Another way is to use litmus paper, which is based on a natural pH indicators. The paper can tell you how strong the chemical is, whether it is a stronger acid or a stronger base.

                                               

Madongan dam

Madongan Dam is a dam situated in Barangay San Marcelino, Municipality of Dingras, Ilocos Norte. There is an access road used to reach the dam. Tourists can to see the cold waters falling from Madongan River. A short hike gives a view of the mountain ranges around the area.